THE PARK

 GRAND CANYON NATIONAL PARK; HOW IT GREW -- AND GROWS

Park history starts in 1882, the inspiration of John Wesley Powell. A legislative go-nowhere at first, some of the Canyon was set aside as the Grand Cañon Forest Reserve by President Harrison under Powell's guidance. Proposals became more frequent, and the XXth-century's first decade was dominated by President Theodore Roosevelt, who proclaimed the first Grand Canyon National Monument. More proposals and legislative history brought the GCNP Act in 1919. The 1920's saw a major attempt to enlarge the Park. The 1930's brought a second Monument, and started a debate over what to do with the western Canyon, which led to its inclusion in Lake Mead National Recreation Area. Small changes were advanced by the Park Service in the 1940's-50's, but after the 1960's dam fight--which led to the proclamation of the third Monument encompassing Marble Canyon--, a major legislative battle in the 1970's brought the current Park into being. Studies were carried out, but did not affect its boundaries until a fourth Monument, Grand Canyon - Parashant was proclaimed to highlight the western Canyon in 2000. 
  So far, there are over 120 "chapters" in this story from 1882 to 2000.

  A related topic is an analysis of the current Park boundary here, segment by segment. Another is the intensive scrutiny given the segment on the south river shore adjacent to the Hualapai Reservation, here.

    EACH TOPIC IS PLACED AT THE LEFT MARGIN. CLICK ON IT AND THE BLOG PAGE WILL COME UP
    IN A NEW WINDOW. WHEN DONE, CLOSE THE WINDOW AND RETURN HERE FOR ANOTHER CHOICE.

FIRST STEPS
Start with a mystery, 1882
  The first Grand Canyon National Park bill is introduced. But what was connection between 
  Powell and Senator, later President, Benjamin Harrison?
The proposed 1882 GCNP
  The map from the time
Powell and Harrison; establishing the Forest Reserve, 1882-93
  The congressional route failing, Powell and Harrison used a new power to protect a major
  part of the Canyon.
Life as a Forest; Recognition comes to the Canyon, 1897-1900
  The 1890's saw admiration of and proposals for the Canyon as a national resource.


THE ROOSEVELT YEARS
  Those already there. Dates for TR. Text of his 1903 speech at the Canyon
  The General Land Office, the USGeological Survey, the Santa Fe RR, and others.
  The Game Preserve an irrelevance.
  The Monument, a map
  How it was done
  Some are critical
  Is it fair to criticize Roosevelt?
  More views
  Could there have been a Park 10 years earlier; contra-Brinkley
Another, more positive, view of TR's options
  Still another analysis, by R.F.Lee
An ally speaks
 Perhaps it was this easy
Douglas Brinkley on TR and the Canyon; my comments


THE 1910'S: TO THE PARK
  Discussion as to how restrictive the boundaries should be
  A Canyon-spirited group offers a most broad view
  What the boundaries were in the early XXth-century 
  A note on sources
  A debate over to be generous toward the Park, or restrictive of its scope
  The Chief Forester, the USGS, GLO, all play significant roles
  Yet the chief actor is the newest state's new Representative, Carl Hayden
  With wrangling over details to the end, the legislation is passed
  A recap of how the Park went from Powell's concept to congressional Act

THE 1920'S: NEW DIRECTIONS
  The Interior Secretary, the Parks Director, the Forest Service, present views
  Director Mather looks north at the Kaibab
  The National Park and Forest Services discuss inadequacies
  A debate on several points; Hayden steps out again
  The Kaibab and its deer tempt NPS to press again
  Powell's limited vision is stretched to the west

THE 1930'S: THE CANYON'S SECOND MONUMENT
  Trips down from Utah to the Canyon's north side; minds boggle
  A lot of spectacular land, a dam, President Hoover acts
  Many progenitors; Hoover acts again
GCNM2: Unquiet infancy, 1932-6
  The Monument's neighbors were not happy. Superintendent Tillotson to the fore
  Discussions about the boundary; legislation seems appropriate
  A bill is passed; the President does not like it
  The dispute settles, at least for a while

LOOKING EVEN FARTHER WEST: WOW! MORE CANYON!
1930's-50's
  Everybody thought there would be a dam upstream of Hoover's reservoir;
  Yet it was the Grand Canyon. What to do?
  Reclamation pressures; the Colorado Basin survey
Resolving an internal debate, 1947-52
  The Recreation Area concept takes hold
Locked up in multiple use, 1952-64
  Congress mandates that the western Canyon be part of Hoover's reservoir

TIDYING UP: 1940'S-60'S
NPS: fixing the boundary, 1940's-57
  Even as the major battle -- the effect of dams -- was being waged, 
  NPS hoped to fix some boundary problems
NPS pushes; the Forest Service resists, 1952-6
  Why was Kanab Canyon a Forest?
Bits and pieces, 1957-65
  Fussing over boundary changes, which go nowhere. 
  Action awaits the dam fight outcome


THE NEXT, AND VERY BIG, STEP:
PARK ENLARGEMENT, 1966-1975
  The Sierra Club formalizes the idea of a "complete" Grand Canyon National Park
Map index 
 A list of maps produced mostly by NPS, with identifying data, 1956-74
Competing visions, 1967 to Jan 1969
  In the 90th Congress, several Park bills were introduced.
  Marble Canyon N.M. was created as the dam fight ended.
A short history of the origin of the short-lived Marble Canyon 
 A drama, an unnecessary Monument, a weird boundary
Three visions, 1969
  In a new Congress, positions were formalized and the conflicts articulated.
NPS at work, 1969-70
  NPS is pressed to make several decisions about adding and deleting land
Trying to get it right, 1971-2
  NPS tries to listen to competing voices; not all are patient
A survey of the issues, 1972
A summary of what was at stake as legislative preparations began for real

                   GOLDWATER'S BILL
What is historical proof?
  A personal shock
Starting up: Nov-Dec 1972
  Initial steps, but maybe not in the right direction: two bill drafts
What we offered: Jan 1973
  We drafted and circulated what might become a consensus proposal
Finding our way to a summit: Jan 1973
  We talked to many of the parties who had an interest; 
  A big, unpleasant surprise, Goldwater style
Building positions: Feb-Mar 1973
  Bills are drafted; there is talk, but mostly waiting
Goldwater introduces his bill: Mar 1973
  A description of the provisions and introductory remarks

Waiting and working, Mar-Jun 1973
  As everybody waits for hearings, NPS re-works its positions
A voice for the "complete" Park
  Senator Case intoduces his bill, June 19th
A chance to speak
  The Senate Parks Subcommittee holds a hearing, June 20th

The Goldwater files
  What is revealed in the office files of Senator Grand Canyon
The word war, Jun-Sep 1973
  Goldwater-Emerson vs. The "Sierra Club"
Preparing for the battle, Jun-Sep 1973
  Making the effort; doing the Washington rounds
The crucial confrontation (Senate style), Sep 1973
  The day-to-day details of saving some Park land
The Senate is done, Sep 1973
  Finishing up, a whisper after the bang  
Senate post-script: Havasupai, Jun-Sep 1973
  A quiet time
One view of the Havasupai effort
  My post from July 2011 on the congressional events

            THE HOUSE OF REPRESENTATIVES
Action begins in the House of Representatives, Sep-Nov 1973
  A November surprise: Hearings
A hearing for the "Grand Canyon"?
  A summary of who, some of them friends, said what, some of it positive, about the Canyon
What we dreamed
  A map showing our Park recommendation and appropriate tribal Parks
The Grand Canyon gains the champion it needs 
 Representative Morris Udall decides to push for real Park protection

         THE HAVASUPAI TRY
The OTHER enlargement
  Setting the scene for the Havasupai effort to repatriate some of their land
The Havasupai Attack
  Introduction and first flames of the Havasupai-conservationist hot war
Snubbed by everybody, the Havasupai get angry
  After the Senate hearings, the Havasupai go after advocates for the Park
The Havasupai gain an edge
  In an internal debate, Arizona Sierra Clubbers split over land for the Havasupai
Some thoughts of a Havasupai opponent
  How am I doin'?

The Havasupai gain an empty victory
  A story of determination and bureaucratic out-maneuvering

        UDALL'S INITIATIVES
Working together to build a more complete Park
  In Congress, the main story is now how to add Canyon lands to the Park
Deep into the details
  Getting the boundary lines and other language right. A Havasupai change
SUCCESS: The Udall version of an enlarged Park is reported
  The House Parks Subcommittee acts favorably on a Canyon-worthy Park bill
Udall's involvement: the back story
  Using his archives, we get his perspective
Udall watches while the Senate acts
  Sorry to say, a period with little new from his archives
Udall makes a great pivot
  He shifts to supporting the repatriation of Havasupai land
Delicious legislative sausage details
  How many hands and minds shaped a major legislation provision
Interior Committee Membership — for reference
  Names, states, party affiliation
Canyon advocates and the great Udall shift
  The details of the Pivot as we experienced it
Side show—dam backers try to influence the legislation
  A short & long version of efforts by the Hualapai & the A.P.A.
The Havasupai lock it down 
  The alignment for land transfer settles into place
The tilt to the Havasupai; our reaction 
  Udall becoming pro-transfer leads to our strengthened response

        ACTION! ACTION! ACTION! VOTES IN THE HOUSE
Another anti-Park voice
  The hunters wake up, somewhat late, to what is happening
More waiting; more running in place
  Targeting the Interior Committee members by all sides right up to the last minute
The Interior Committee Acts
  The members debate; the Havasupai win
And its result:
  Showing the official map
A peek outside 
  Great events in the non-Canyon arena
Putting the precedent issue front & center
  Issues & leadership shift away from the Canyon
A few more steps are taken
  Watching the sausage grinder from a distance
Summary of the formal Committee Report
  Justifications and explanations
The hunters' attack strengthens
  They gain crucial commitments
Accompanied by skirmishes, the big day approaches
  Attacks and ripostes from both sides
The House of Representatives decides
  The issues are laid out fully

   FINAL ACTIONS
Gathering forces for the final battle
  Passed the House, and getting ready for a Conference on differences
Lobbying is a personal thing 
 The day-to-day effort to work for a good Conference result
The Conferees Report
 The text of what they finally did to ... , for ...
The result, 1975
 The text of the Act(s) as passed, to see where it all got to
Something lost; something found
 The Wilderness study got left behind; hunters got a present
Different perspectives; different evaluation
  A review of some after-the-fact reports  



                            POST-1975 ACT AND ON-GOING MATTERS
My evaluations: 40 years ago and 40 years after

1975: Getting ready to plan for changes in the Canyon's political environment
1975-6: What makes lands suitable for Park status?
  A hurry-up and get-it-done study
Feb 1976: Study results
  Yes, the lands are Park-suitable

1976: The most ambitious study — to expand the Park
  NPS charges in
1977-8 Gearing down the ambitious
  NPS moves from the front seat
1980-1 Into the "done" pile, whimpering 
 The study is finished; did anybody know or care?
Final Report: Defeat or A Whimper for the Canyon?
  Protecting the cattle ranchers and deer hunters

  


THE FOURTH GRAND CANYON NATIONAL MONUMENT
How the Monument came to be, 1998-2000
 An interview with former Secretary of the Interior Bruce Babbitt, about
  Grand Canyon - Parashant National Monument and other topics
Getting reaquainted, a confusion of goals
  Dealing with the western Arizona Strip
Babbitt sets the stage for Monument 4
  Preparations for a public discussion of further Canyon recognition, 1998
Proposals are out for public consumption
  What the Secretary wanted to do for the Grand Canyon
A different process
  The Secretary holds meetings to speak, and to listen
The Secretary awaits other's initiatives
  Some Arizonans favor a different outcome
The years wanes, with the Secretary's patience
  Time for action
The Antiquities Act Proclamation for the Monument
  Official text




AND OUT BEYOND 2000, MORE IDEAS

  40 years later, a new tool to help the Canyon and the Navajo

And a fifth?
  A proposal by Representative Raul Grijalva for "Watershed" protection 
Maps and text/content of the Grijalva bill
  The details of a new initiative
Will Obama act?
   Perhaps he will use the Antiquities Act to create GCNM #5

    THE LONG, LONG, LONG VIEWS
Searching for over-arching guidance in Grand Canyon affairs
  Can we keep alive an overall, cooperation-inspiring, view of the entire Canyon?
Time for another overall survey
  An outline of where the Park came from, and where we have yet to take it
  How did a multitude of conceptions get us this far; what about the rest of the way?


to be cont.